Milk Glossary

Share on social media

There are a few important terms to understand when talking about milk:

Ahimsa. Ahimsa is a Sanskrit word with many connotations, but its root meaning is basically “nonviolence” or “without harm.” It is used to refer to milk from cows that are happy and loved and will never be killed. Such milk is rather rare to find because even the organic dairy farms send their cows to slaughter when they grow too old to produce milk. Nevertheless, throughout the world there are compassionate no-kill farms with Adopt-a-Cow programs.

Organic. Refers to milk from cows not treated with synthetic hormones and antibiotics or fed with GMO and pesticide-loaded grains.

Grass-fed/pasture-raised. Refers to milk from cows fed their natural food—grass and hay. A study conducted by the USDA has determined that pasture-fed cows produce milk containing as much as five times the level of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a known anti-carcinogen, as cows managed in confined housing.

Conventional. Refers to milk produced in factory farms where the cows are often mistreated, fed unnatural GMO grains (and even chicken beaks, junk food, or sawdust!), injected with hormones and antibiotics, and brutally slaughtered as soon as they stop giving milk.

Raw. Refers to unprocessed milk with all its nutrients, bacteria, and proteins preserved. Currently, ten states allow the retail sale of raw milk. In the rest of the United States, sales regulations vary. Check for details. Uncooked raw milk is best digested when it is still warm and frothy, immediately after milking the cow. Refrigerated raw milk is best digested when boiled, ideally with spices. Make sure the farm you’re getting your raw milk from follows proper farming and hygiene standards.

Pasteurized. Pasteurization is a process of heating milk at high temperature to reduce the risk of milk contamination with pathogens and to extend its shelf life. The process denatures milk proteins and makes casein (milk’s primary protein) difficult to digest. It also destroys lactase, the enzyme that helps us digest lactose, reduces the vitamin content in the milk, and makes its calcium difficult for a human body to absorb. Avoid the ultrapasteurized milk that can be stored unrefrigerated for up to nine months!

Homogenized. Homogenization is the processing of milk by breaking down (and damaging) its fats and distributing them throughout the milk so that the cream is permanently mixed in, which extends its shelf life. The larger and differentiated fat globules in raw milk hold the nutrients and lactose and cause slower absorption in the gut because they’re more complex to break down. The faster absorption of homogenized milk is more shocking to the digestive system and can lead to greater chance of lactose intolerance and inflammation.

Unhomogenized. Also labeled as “cream on top” or “creamline”; refers to milk that is pasteurized but not homogenized; available in health food stores across the country.

Fortified. Refers to pasteurized milk with added vitamins A and D. These vitamins are often synthetic, and according to some natural health practitioners, the body treats them as toxins. No fortified food can replace the naturally occurring vitamins in whole, unadulterated foods.

Whole. Refers to full-fat milk, closest to the way it comes from the cow.

Low-fat or skim (nonfat). Refers to milk that is processed to reduce or eliminate fat. Such milk is much harder to digest. A lot of the milk’s nutrients are lipid-soluble, so removing the fat from the milk also lowers its essential nutrient content. Regular consumption of low-fat milk is associated with osteopenia (thin bones) and osteoporosis (very frail bones).

Colostrum. The milk a cow gives immediately after giving birth. Ayurveda recommends that during the first week after birth, the colostrum milk should be reserved for the baby calf only—it is its rightful claim.

9 replies
  1. Anu
    Anu says:

    Thank you very much for such detailed post. I moved to United States from India and grew up on raw milk. After coming here was so confused with the different labels and hidden meanings. Now planning to switch to raw milk. Do you have any experience with raw milk available in US?

    Many thanks!

    • Divya Alter
      Divya Alter says:

      Hi Anu,
      Raw milk is available in retail stores in 10 states of the USA. Look online to see if it’s available in your state.

    • Divya Alter
      Divya Alter says:

      Hi Megan,

      Slowly bringing raw milk to a boil helps destroy harmful bacteria and break down the milk proteins for easier digestion. The key is to bring the milk to a boil on low heat, slowly–in this way its key nutrients are preserved.

      • Megan
        Megan says:

        I am still struggling with this as I have read repeatedly to not heat raw milk above 118 degrees. I am open to this new information about boiling raw milk for digestibility, but would like more info. Bear with me.

        Right after I milk my cow I can drink the frothy milk. At this point the milk proteins are digestible and the bad bacteria are, I don’t know, neutralized. I then cool the milk and store it in the refrigerator. Now the milk proteins are not digestible and the bad bacteria are a concern.
        What has happened? Why has cooling the milk made the proteins indigestible?
        Also, HTST at 160 denatures milk and makes it difficult to digest. Milk simmers above 180 degrees and boils just above 213 degrees. If I boil the milk from my cow, why is it not denatured?

        • 6mn
          6mn says:

          Also, after I slowly boil the milk, which key nutrients are preserved and which are lost? Is digestibility not affected by the loss of good bacteria? Thanks.

          • Divya Alter
            Divya Alter says:

            Hi Megan, if you slowly bring raw milk to a boil, the foodborne bacteria, microbes, and pathogens will be destroyed while protecting most of the digestive enzymes (remember that our body produces most digestive enzymes!). Boiling also breaks down the protein molecules, to make them easier to digest. You can do a simple test: drink cold raw milk and hot slowly boiled milk with spices on two separate days and see how your body reacts 🙂 Here is an an article on the topic by Dr. John Douillard:

  2. Ayesha
    Ayesha says:

    Hello…in making of ghee ..we have remove cream…such that the milk becomes whole milk to skimmed milk.. right??
    I HV heard skimmed milk not good for health..

    • Divya Alter
      Divya Alter says:

      Hi Ayesha, you can use raw milk and separate the cream yourself, but you will have to use many gallons of milk to get the amount of cream you need. Milk with the cream separated is not the same as the commercial skim milk but still a whole milk with a lower fat content. And yes, commercial skim milk is not good for health.


Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *